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Hang Gliding                   Paragliding                   Towing

REVISED 4 April 1995, Rev. 2.02
The New HG/PG FAQ (Bob Mackey)
Further revised by Ray Leonard

Frequently Asked Questions about Hang Gliding

 
1. Basic Performance Questions

A. How do you steer?

B. How high/far can a hang glider go?

C. How long do flights last?

D. Where can hang gliders launch and land?

E. How safe are hang gliders?

2. Flying Conditions

A. Is lots of wind necessary to launch/fly/land?

B. How do gliders gain altitude?

C. What sort of temperatures are encountered in flight?

3. Pilot Requirements:

A. Is hang gliding physically demanding?

B. Do pilots need to be of a certain age, gender, weight or size?

C. Do pilots need to be licensed to fly hang gliders?

D. How does a student go about learning to fly?

E. How much does all this cost?

F. How to get more information

 

1. BASIC PERFORMANCE QUESTIONS:
A. How do you steer?
Hang gliders are controlled by shifting the pilot's weight with respect to the glider. Pilots are suspended from a hang strap connected to the glider's frame (hence the name "hang" glider). By moving forward and backward and side to side at the end of this hang strap, the pilot alters the center of gravity of the glider. This then causes the glider to pitch or roll in the direction of the pilot's motion and thus allows both speed control and turning.
B. How high/far can a hang glider go?
This depends a lot on the conditions in which they are flown, but flights in excess of 300 miles in length and altitudes of well over 17,999 ft. MSL have been recorded. More typically, pilots in the summer in the western US will frequently achieve altitudes of 5,000 to 10,000 ft AGL and fly for over 100 miles.
C. How long do flights last?
Again this depends on conditions, but a high altitude flight is frequently several hours in duration. On good days, pilots don't have to land until the sun goes down.
D. Where can gliders launch and land?
Pretty much any slope that is relatively free from obstructions, is steeper than about 6 to 1 and faces into the wind can be used to foot launch a hang glider. The pilot just runs down the slope and takes off when the air speed reaches 15 to 20 mph. Alternatively, towing by trucks, stationary winches and ultralight aircraft allows gliders to get into the air when no hills are available.

Where a hang glider can be landed depends somewhat on the skill of the pilot. An experienced pilot should be able to put a glider safely into any flat spot clear of obstructions bigger than about 50 by 200 ft. This area requirement can vary somewhat, though, depending on wind conditions and the surrounding terrain.

E. How safe are hang gliders?
As safe as the person flying them. Like any form of sport aviation, hang gliding can be dangerous if pursued carelessly. Gliders in the US are now certified for airworthiness by the Hang Glider Manufacturers Assn. (HGMA). Also, hang gliding instruction has been standardized and students learn from certified instructors using a thorough gradual training program. Despite these advances, people still make judgement errors and aviation is not very forgiving of such. The majority of pilots fly their entire careers without sustaining a serious injury.

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2. FLYING CONDITIONS:
A. Is lots of wind necessary to launch/fly/land?
Hang gliders can be launched, flown and landed in winds from zero to about 30 mph safely. Generally, ideal winds for launching and landing are from 5 to 20 mph depending on the flying site. Wind speed is less important in flight since the pilot controls the air speed of the glider whatever the wind speed may be.
B. How do gliders gain altitude?
While there are many sources of upwardly moving air or "lift", the most commonly used by hang gliders are ridge lift and thermal lift. Ridge lift occurs when horizontal wind hits an obstruction (like a ridge, for instance) and is deflected upward. Thermal lift occurs when terrain is heated by the sun and transfers this heat to the surrounding air - which then rises. Typically ridge lift exists in a "lift band" on the windward side of a ridge and pilots get up by flying back and forth through this band. Thermal lift on the other hand usually starts at some local "trigger point" on the ground and then rises as a column or bubble of air. To get up in a thermal, pilots thus typical circle in this region of rising air.
C. What sort of temperatures are encountered in flight?
Hang gliders are flown in sub-zero conditions in the winter and in the hottest deserts in the summer. Since the air temperature typically falls by about 4 degrees (F) for every 1000 ft gain in elevation, however, high altitude hang glider flights are frequently cold. Pilots expecting to fly over about 12 - 14,000 ft in the summer will generally wear warm clothing to protect against exposure.

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3. PILOT REQUIREMENTS:
A. Is hang gliding physically demanding?
Almost anyone can fly a hang glider. If someone can jog while balancing a 50 - 70 lb. weight on their shoulders they can learn to fly. While flying does not require great strength (since the straps - not the pilot's arms - hold the pilot up) long duration flights in turbulent conditions require a moderate degree of upper body endurance. This typically develops as the pilot progresses through training to these longer flights.
B. Do pilots need to be of a certain age, gender, weight or size range?
Hang glider pilots range in age from teens to octagenarians. The limits are more mental than physical. If someone is sufficiently mature to make decisions significantly affecting their safety and has sufficiently good reflexes to make such decisions promptly, then they probably are of a reasonable age for flying.

Since flying depends more on balance and endurance than on brute strength, woman and men make equally good pilots. While the fraction varies regionally, about 10 - 15 % of the hang glider pilots in the US are women.

While pilots of virtually any size can fly, the limits here are mostly dictated by available equipment. Heavier and lighter pilots require commensurately bigger and smaller gliders.

Since most hang glider pilots weigh between 90 and 250 lbs, however, it may be difficult to find equipment appropriate for pilots beyond this range. Specially designed tandem gliders are available, however, and may be used for extra heavy pilots.

While height per se does not determine who can fly, again, equipment tends to be most available for those between about 5 and 6.5 feet tall. Harness and glider modifications may be necessary for individuals outside this range.


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C. Do pilots need to be licensed to fly hang gliders?
Not really, but a program analogous to FAA licensing exists and is administered by the USHPA (U.S. Hang Gliding & Paragliding Association). This program consists of a specific set of flying skills corresponding to a series of pilot proficiency ratings (Beginner through Master) each of which carries a set of recommended operating limitations. Beginner rated pilots, for instance, should only fly from hills under 100 ft in height in mild winds and under the guidance of an instructor.

While these ratings don't carry the force of law in quite the same way as FAA pilot's licenses do, the majority of flying sites in the US require that pilots hold some specific USHPA rating to be allowed to fly.

D. How does a student go about learning to fly?
The USHPA certifies hang gliding instructors and schools. All students should learn from a certified instructor. Lists of certified schools can be obtained from the USHPA at (719) 632-8300, or on this web page.

The time required for training varies considerably with the student's innate skills and with the type of training conditions. Typically, though, a student will spend 5 - 10 lessons to obtain each of the first two USHPA pilot ratings (Beginner and Novice) - a process which generally takes from 3 to 6 months.

At the end of this primary training process, the student is usually flying from moderate altitudes (several hundred to a few thousand ft) in relative mild conditions.

Progression to more difficult flying conditions continues from then on under the supervision of more experienced pilots or Observers/Advanced Instructors.


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E. How much does all this cost?
If a student goes to a certified school in a large urban area and buys all new equipment at retail prices, learning to fly can cost $5000+. If one purchases used equipment, however, this price can easily drop to around $2000. Whenever used equipment is purchsed, however, it is IMPERATIVE that an experienced pilot familiar with the equipment inspect it thoroughly.

Costs vary a lot, but as of 1996 figure on:

Training through the Novice level: $600 - $1200

Training glider: $400 - $1500 (used) $2500 - $3500 (new)

Harness $50 - $300 (used) $200 - $700 (new)

Parachute $200 - $300 (used) $450 - $550 (new)

Helmet $80 - $300 (new)

Fortunately, this can be purchased in stages. Usually instructors will provide training equipment as part of their package through the Beginner rating, but will expect students to obtain their own equipment beyond this point.

F. How to get more information:
Contact USHPA by clicking the "Contact Us" link above.

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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS about PARAGLIDING
 
Questions:
What is a paraglider?
What are the main component parts of a paraglider?
Is a paraglider the same thing as a parachute?
What is the difference between a hang glider and a paraglider?
Why would anyone want to fly a paraglider?
How much does a paraglider cost?
How long does a paraglider last?
What are Big-Ears (Rosette, A-Line Stall, Collapses)?
Q.What is a paraglider?
A. A paraglider is a foot-launched, ram-air, aerofoil canopy, designed to be flown and landed with no other energy requirements than the wind and gravity.
Q.What are the main component parts of a paraglider?
A. A canopy (the actual "wing"), risers (the cords by which the pilot is suspended below the canopy) and a harness. In addition, the brake cords provide speed and directional control and carabiners are used to connect the risers and the harness together.
Q.Is a paraglider the same thing as a parachute?
A. No. A paraglider is similar to a modern, steerable skydiving canopy, but different in several important ways.

The paraglider is a foot-launched device, so there is no "drouge" 'chute or "slider", and the construction is generally much lighter, as it doesn't have to withstand the sudden shock of opening at high velocities.

The paraglider usually has more cells and thinner risers than a parachute.

Q.What is the difference between a hang glider and a paraglider?
A. A hang glider has a rigid frame maintaining the shape of the wing, with the pilot usually flying in a prone position.

The paraglider canopy shape is maintained only by air pressure and the pilot is suspended in a sitting or supine position.

The hang glider has a "cleaner" aerodynamic profile and generally is capable of flying at much higher speeds than a paraglider.

Q.Why would anyone want to fly a paraglider when they could fly a hang glider?
A. A paraglider folds down into a package the size of a largish knapsack and can be carried easily.

Conversely, a hang glider needs a vehicle with a roof-rack for transportation to and from the flying site, as well as appreciable time to set-up and strip-down.

It's also somewhat easier to learn to fly, as a paraglider flys at much slower speeds.

Q.How much does a paraglider cost?
A.This varies between makers, models, countries, but a middle of the range canopy and harness will normally cost somewhere in the region of $3000 to $4000.
Q.How long does a paraglider last?
A.General wear and tear (especially the latter) and deterioration from exposure to ultra-violet usually limit the useful lifetime of a canopy to somewhere in the region of 200 to 300 hours of airtime. This obviously depends strongly on use.
Q.What are Big-Ears (Rosette, A-Line Stall, Collapses)?
A.You don't wanna' know ...yet!

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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS about TOWING
 
Q. How do you tow a hang glider?
A. There are a number of ways, but they include using a static line, a payout winch, a stationary winch or aero tow.
Q. How does a hang glider take off when it's being towed?
A. The pilot may foot launch, platform launch or dolly launch the glider, or even launch the glider from floats on the water.
Q. Does it take any training to learn to fly a hang glider under tow?
A. A hang glider is somewhat more difficult to fly under tow, and the pilot must also be aware of the various things that can go wrong in order to react appropriately.

The USHPA has tow administrators who can rate people for tow. Most of those are also instructors and can train people to tow safely.

Q. How about flying a paraglider under tow?
A. Paragliders are relatively easy to fly under tow with several exceptions. However, learning to fly a paraglider under tow should be done under the supervision of a qualified Paragliding Tow Administrator.
Q. Is towing hang gliders or paragliders more dangerous than foot launch?
A. Probably not, but it's hard to say as we don't actually know the proportion of towing activity to foot launch.

As towing is more complicated than foot launch and more equipment intensive, there is more room for error and equipment failure.

However in some areas of the US, towing is the primary method of launch and many pilots seldom launch any other way.



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